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MB0044 – Production & Operations Management (Assignment 2 Answers)

Disclaimer: You may use the content for personal use, for purpose of submitting assignments and for sharing them with your friends. Note that I am not associated with the user of the content directly neither do I endorse them. The content should not be used for commercial purposes. Some parts of answers can be missing, not on purpose but because this is original work and I might have not been able to find the answers. This has been put up only for helping fellow batch mates across the country. Use and share.

Master of Business Administration

Semester II

 MB0044 – Production & Operations Management

 Assignment 2

Q1. Explain Logical Process Modelling and Physical Process Modelling. What are the ingredients of business process?

Ans.

Logical Process Modelling

Logical Process Modeling is the representation of putting together all the activities of business process in details and making a representation of them. The initial data collected need to be arranged in a logical manner so that, links are made between nodes for making for the workflow smooth. The steps to be followed to make the work smoother are given below:

  1. Capture relevant data in detail to be acted upon.

  2. Establish controls and limit access to the data during processes execution

  3. Determine which task in the process is to be done and also the subsequent task in that process.

  4. Make sure that all the relevant data is available for all the tasks.

  5. Make the relevant and appropriate data available for that task.

  6. Establish a mechanism to indicate acceptance of the results after every task or process.

This is to have an assurance that flow is going ahead with accomplishments in the desired path. Some of these activities may occur in a sequential order whereas some of them run parallel. There may even be circular paths, like re-work loops. Complexities arise when the processes activities are not connected together. Logical processes model consists of only the business activities and shows the connectivity among them. The process model is a representation of the business activities different from the technology dependent ones. Thus, we have a model that is singularly structured only for business activities. Computer programmes are also present in the total system. This allows the business-oriented executives to be in control of the inputs, processes and outputs. The logical process model improves, control on the access to data. It also identifies, who is in possession of data at different nodes in the data flow network that has been structured. A few of the logical modeling formats are given below.

1. Process Descriptions with task sequences and data addresses.

2. Flow chart with various activities and relationships

3. Flow diagrams

4. Function hierarchies

5. Function dependency diagram

Every business activity, when considered as a logical process model, can be represented by diagram, it can be decomposed and meaningful names can be given to the details. Verb and noun form combinations can be used to describe at each level. Nouns give the name of the activity uniquely and are used for the entire model meaning the same activity.

PHYSICAL PROCESS MODELLING

Physical process modeling is concerned with the actual design of database meeting the requirement of the business. Physical modeling deals with the conversion of the logical model into a relation model. Object gets defined at the schema level. The objects here are tables created on the basis of entities and attributes. A database is defined for the business. All the information is put together to make the database software specific. This means that the objects during physical modeling vary on the database software being used. The outcomes are server model diagrams showing tables and relationships with a database.

BELOW ARE THE INGREDIENTS OF BUSINESS PROCESS.

The ingredients that might be used in a business process can be briefly outlined as shown below.

  • The data, which accomplishes the desired business objective.

  • Acquisition, storage, distribution, and control of data, which undertakes the process across tasks.

  • Persons, teams, and organizational units, which helps to perform and achieve the tasks.

  • Decision, which enhances the value of data during the process.

Q.2 Explain Project Management Knowledge Areas. With an example explain work breakdown structure.

Ans:

The knowledge areas of project management are the following:

  • Project integration management cost management, communications management.

  • Project scope management, quality management, risk management

  • Project time management, human management, and procurement management.

  • For a project to be successful, it is necessary to understand its relationship with other management disciplines. Other management supporting disciplines are business legal issues, strategic planning, logistics, human resource management, and domain knowledge.

WORK BREAK DOWN STRUCTURE.

The entire process of a project may be considered to be made up on number of sub process placed in different stage called the work breakdown structure (WBS).WBS is the technique to analysis the content of work and cost by breaking it down into its component parts. Projects key stages from the highest level of the WBS, which is then used to show the details at the lower levels of the project. Each key stage comprises many tasks identified at the start of planning and later this list will have to be validated

WBS is produced by identifying the key elements, breaking each element down into component parts and continuing to breakdown until manageable work packages have indentified.These can then be allocated to the appropriate person. The WBS does not shown dependencies other than a grouping under the key stages. It is not time based- there is no timescale on the drawing. Chart is showing the example of work break down structure.

A Work Breakdown Structure is a results-oriented family tree that captures all the work of a project in an organized way. It is often portrayed graphically as a hierarchical tree, however, it can also be a tabularlist of “element” categories and tasks or the indented task list that appears in your Gantt chart schedule. As a very simple example, Figure 1 shows a WBS for a hypothetical banquet.

Q.3 Take an example of any product or project and explain project management life cycle.

Ans.

  • A life cycle of a project consists of the following steps.

  • Understanding the scope of the project.

  • Establishing objectives of the projects

  • Formulating and planning various activities.

  • Executing the project

  • Monitoring and controlling the project resources.

  • Closing and post completion analysis

Phases of Project Management Life-Cylce.

Project management life cycle has six phases:

  1. Analysis and evaluation phase.

  2. Marketing phase

  3. Design phase

  4. Execution phase

  5. Control inspecting, testing, and delivery phase

  6. Closure and post completion analysis phase.

Analysis And Evaluation Phase:

Analysis and evaluation phase is the initial phase of any project. In this phase, information is collected from the customer pertaining to the project. From the collected information, the requirements of the project are analyzed. According to the customer requirement, the entire project is planned in a strategic manner. The project manager conducts the analysis of the problem and submits a detailed report to the top management.

Marketing Phase:

A project proposal is prepared by a group of people including the project manager. This proposal has to contain the strategic adapted to market the product to the customer.

Design Phase

Design phase involves the study of inputs and outputs of the various project stages.

Inputs received

It consists of project feasibility study, preliminary project evaluation details, project proposal, and customer interviews.

Outputs produced

It consist of system design specifications, functional specifications of the project, design specifications of the project and project plan.

Execution Phase:

In execution phase, the project manager and the term members work on the project objectives as per the plan. At every stage during the execution, reports are prepared.

Control- Inspecting Testing and Delivery Phase:

During this phase, the project team’s works under the guidance of the project manager. The project manager has to ensure that the team working under him is implementing the project designs accurately. The project has to be tracked or monitored through its cost, manpower, and schedule. The project manager has to ensure ways of managing the customer and marketing the future work, as well as ways to perform quality control work

Closure and Post Completion Analysis Phase:

Upon satisfactory completion and delivery of the intended product or service the staff performance has to be evaluated. The project manager has to document the lessons from the project. Reports on project feedback are to be prepared and analyzed. A project execution report is to be prepared.

Let us have a quick recap of what is involved in the above phases

Analysis and evaluation phase:

The preparation stage involves the preparation and approval of project outline, project plan, and project budget.

Assigning task to the team members:

The next stage involves selecting and briefing the project team about the proposals, followed by discussions on the roles and responsibilities of the project member and the organization.

Feasibility study:

The feasibility or research stage establishes whether the project is feasible or not and establishes the risk factors likely to be faced during the course of the project execution and the related key factors to overcome the problem

Execution phase:

A detailed definition and plan for the project and its execution is prepared by the team and coordinated by the project manager.

Implementation stage:

The implementation stage involves the execution of the project as per the plan, this also involves careful monitoring of the project progress and managing the changes, if any, within the scope of the project framework.

Closure and post completion analysis phase:

The final stage involves satisfactory delivery of the product/service to the customers. Upon completion, a project review is to be conducted by the project manager along with team member, sponsors, and customer. Project review process involves discussions about the progress, performance, hurdles that were overcome and problems faced, so that, such instances could be avoided in future projects.

Q.4 Explain PMIS. What Is Difference Between Key Success Factor (Ksf) And Knowledge(K) Factor ? Explain With Examples.

Ans. PMIS (Project Management Information System)

An information system is mainly aimed at providing the management at different levels with information related to the system of the organization. It helps in maintaining discipline in the system. An information system dealing with project management tasks is the project management information system. It helps in decision-making in arriving at optimum allocation of resources. The information system is based on a database of the organization. A project management information system also holds schedule, scope changes, risk assessment and actual results.

The information is communicated to managers at different levels of the organization depending upon the need. Let us find how different stakeholders use a project management information system.

The four majors aspects of a PMIS are:

  1. Providing information to the major stakeholder.

  1. Assisting the team members, stakeholders, managers with necessary information and summary of the information shared to the higher level managers.

  1. Assisting the manager in doing what if analysis about project staffing, proposed staffing changes and total allocation of resources.

Helping organizational learning by helping the members of the organizations lean about project management

Usually, the team members, and not the systems administrators of the company, develop a good PMIS. Organisations tend to allocate such responsibility by rotation among members with a well designed and structured data entry and analytical format.

Example of Key success factors

According to TeachMeFinance.com, a turnkey project is “a project in which a builder/developer contracts to construct a completed facility that includes all items necessary for use and occupancy.”Unfortunately, many turnkey businesses never capture the interest of the buyers. Whether you’re building in brick and mortar or building in computer code, there are several factors critical to the success of your turnkey project.

Know the Business

Several businesses can be set up as turnkey businesses, from food service to copy management to telemarketing and sales. Whichever you decide, it is important to have an intimate knowledge of the business you are building. One key factor in a successful turnkey business is being able to anticipate the needs and desires of the potential owners before they are brought onboard. A salesman, for example, looking to purchase a turnkey sales business will need an office as a base of operations; but since so much of the sales process is done through phones, computers and other electronic devices, the turnkey developer may want to include additional power outlets in the construction of the building, or desks with onboard power strips and surge protectors. These small additions can make a turnkey project a success.

Know the Area

Internet businesses often have nationwide access to clientele, but brick-and-mortar turnkey operations sometimes run into trouble in areas poorly suited to the service they offer. For example,an outdoor food service stand opening in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, will not do as much business(at least during the winter months) as one opening in an Orlando, Florida, theme park. Knowing the area where you are constructing your turnkey business includes knowing the weather conditions,the dominant demographic, the current popularity and number of businesses like the one you are creating and the average income of the public. Planning a turnkey business that uses these factors to its advantage will make the business more readily sellable.

Make Connections

Turnkey businesses are designed to be ready to operate as soon as the buyer takes ownership. Still, once they are sold, many businesses of this type run into problems when it comes to resupplying, logistics and advertising. Because of this, many buyers are wary of turnkey operations. One way to quell any “down the road” fears is to have this part of the infrastructure accounted for. Make contact with businesses which help advertise businesses, ship products, supply copy paper and any other stock the owner might require. Obtain discounts from as many as possible

Most organisations are aware that in today’s highly competitive environment managing effectively their knowledge is the only way to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. One of the primary areas to which knowledge management can be applied is the field of project management. An increasing number of business sectors are adopting a project approach to carry outa range of essential activities where valuable knowledge is gained. Knowledge from projects is an important resource for further projects, because projects solve innovative and interdisciplinary tasks. However, the majority of organisations do not manage the information gained through past projects. Failure to transfer knowledge from past to future projects leads to wasted activity and unnecessary expenses by ‘reinventing the wheel’.

Therefore, knowledge management is a critical success factor for many projects. The purpose of this Management Report is to approach knowledge management from the perspective of project management. The main objective is to define how knowledge management can be enhanced within a project by analysing suitable tools and relevant theories. The research is based on the high-speed train project XY of the company XXX. This project is an important milestone for XXX to improve its market position in Spain. T

The knowledge gained through the XY project will be the key factor for the success of the further high-speed train projects. The main finding of the case study highlights that there is a lack of formal knowledge management activities at the project. The project team focuses mainly on personal interaction for transferring knowledge and information technology is not used to its full potential. A hybrid approach to knowledge management for project environments is suggested, taking into account technical as well as human-specific aspects. The main recommendation is to determine a knowledge management strategy, which preferably focuses on transferring tacit knowledge and gives information technology a support function. Other areas of improvement are creating an open and constructive project culture, including knowledge initiatives in reward systems and fostering documented project review sessions. Finally, general conclusions are provided to answer the main research question of this management report.

Q.5 Explain the seven principal of supply chain management. Take an example of any product in the market and explain the scenario of Bullwhip effect.

Ans: Seven Principles Of SCM are:

 1. Group customer by needs: Effective SCM groups customers by distinct service needs,regardless of industry and then tailors services to those particular segments.

2. Customize the logistics networks: In designing their logistic network, companies need to focus on the service requirement and profit potential of the customer segments identified.

3. Listen to signals of market demand and plan accordingly: sales and operations planners must monitor the entire supply chain to detect early warning signals of changing customers demand and needs. This demand driven approach leads to more consistent forecast and optimal resource allocation.

4. Differentiate the product closer to the customer: companies today no longer can afford to stock pile inventory to compensate for possible forecasting errors. Instead, they need to postpone product differentiation in the manufacturing process closer to actual consumer demand. This strategy allows the supply chain to respond quickly and cost effectively to changes in customer needs.

5. Strategically manage the sources of supply: By working closely with their key suppliers to reduce the overall costs of owning materials and services, SCM maximizes profit margins both for themselves and their suppliers.

6. Develop a supply chain wide technology strategy: As one of the cornerstones of successful SCM, information technology must be able to support multiple levels of decisions making. It also should afford a clear view and ability to measure the flow of products, services and information.

7. Adopt channel spanning performance measures: Excellent supply chain performance measurement systems do more than just monitor internal functions. They apply performance criteria to every link in the supply chain-criteria that both service and financial metrics.

BULLWHIP EFFECT IN SCM

An organization will always have up and downs. It is necessary that the managers of the organization keep track of the market conditions and analyze the changes. They must take decisions on the resources and make necessary changes within the organization to meet the market demands. Failing to do so may results in wild swings in the orders.

A truck driver delivers beer once each week to the retailer. Then the retailer places an order with the trucker who returns the order to the wholesaler. There’s a four-week lag between ordering and receiving the beer. The retailer and wholesaler do not communicate directly. The retailer sells hundreds of products and the wholesaler distributes many products to a large number of customers. The following represents the results of a typical beer game:-

3.1 The Retailer

Week 1:

Lover’s Beer is not very popular but the retailer sells four cases per week on average. Because the lead time is four weeks, the retailer attempts to keep twelve cases in the store by ordering four cases each Monday when the trucker makes a delivery.

Week 2:

The retailer’s sales of Lover’s beer doubles to eight cases, so on Monday, he orders 8 cases.

Week 3:

The retailer sells 8 cases. The trucker delivers four cases. To be safe, the retailer decides to order 12 cases of Lover’s beer.

Week 4:

The retailer learns from some of his younger customers that a music video appearing on TV shows a group singing “I’ll take on last sip of Lover’s beer and run into the sun.” The retailer assumes that this explains the increased demand for the product. The trucker delivers 5 cases. The retailer is nearly sold out, so he orders 16 cases.

Week 5:

The retailer sells the last case, but receives 7 cases. All 7 cases are sold by the end of the week. So again on Monday the retailer orders 16 cases.

Week 6:

Customers are looking for Lover’s beer. Some put their names on a list to be called when the beer comes in. The trucker delivers only 6 cases and all are sold by the weekend. The retailer orders another 16 cases.

Week 7

: The trucker delivers 7 cases. The retailer is frustrated, but orders another 16 cases.

Week 8

: The trucker delivers 5 cases and tells the retailer the beer is backlogged. The retailer is really getting irritated with the wholesaler, but orders 24 cases.

3.2 The Wholesaler

The wholesaler distributes many brands of beer to a large number of retailers, but he is the only distributor of Lover’s beer. The wholesaler orders 4 truckloads from the brewery truck drive reach week and receives the beer after a 4 week lag. The wholesaler’s policy is to keep 12 truckloads in inventory on a continuous basis.

Week 6:

By week 6 the wholesaler is out of Lover’s beer and responds by ordering 30 truckloads from the brewery.

Week 8:

By the 8th week most stores are ordering 3 or 4 times more Lovers’ beer than their regular amounts.

Week 9:

The wholesaler orders more Lover’s beer, but gets only 6 truckloads.

Week 10:

Only 8 truckloads are delivered, so the wholesaler orders 40.

Week 11:

Only 12 truckloads are received, and there are 77 truckloads in backlog, so the wholesaler orders 40 more truckloads.

Week 12:

The wholesaler orders 60 more truckloads of Lover’s beer. It appears that the beer is becoming more popular from week to week.

Week 13:

There is still a huge backlog.

Weeks 14-15:

The wholesaler receives larger shipments from the brewery, but orders from retailers begin to drop off.

Week 16:

The trucker delivers 55 truckloads from the brewery, but the wholesaler gets zero orders from retailers. So he stops ordering from the brewery.

Week 17:

The wholesaler receives another 60 truckloads. Retailers order zero. The wholesaler orders zero. The brewery keeps sending beer.

3.3 The Brewery

The brewery is small but has a reputation for producing high quality beer. Lover’s beer is only one of several products produced at the brewery.

Week 6:

New orders come in for 40 gross. It takes two weeks to brew the beer.

Week 14:

Orders continue to come in and the brewery has not been able to catch up on the backlogged orders. The marketing manager begins to wonder how much bonus he will get for increasing sales so dramatically.

Week 16:

The brewery catches up on the backlog, but orders begin to drop off.

Week 18:

By week 18 there are no new orders for Lover’s beer.

Week 19:

The brewery has 100 gross of Lover’s beer in stock, but no orders. So the brewery stops producing Lover’s beer.

Weeks 20-23

. No orders. At this point all the players blame each other for the excess inventory. Conversations with wholesale and retailer reveal an inventory of 93 cases at the retailer and 220 truckloads at the wholesaler. The marketing manager figures it will take the wholesaler a year to sell the Lover’s beer he has in stock. The retailers must be the problem. The retailer explains that demand increased from

4 cases per week to 8 cases. The wholesaler and marketing manager think demand mushroomed after that, and then fell off, but the retailer explains that didn’t happen. Demand stayed at 8 cases per week. Since he didn’t get the beer he ordered, he kept ordering more in an attempt to keep up with the demand. The marketing manager plans his resignation.

3.4 Lessons from the Beer Game

1. The structure of a system influences behavior. Systems cause their own problems, not external forces or individual errors.2. Human systems include the way in which people make decisions.3. People tend to focus on their own decisions and ignore how these decisions affect others.

3.5 Lessons Related to the Learning Disabilities

1. People do not understand how their actions affect others.2. So they tend to blame each other for problems.3. Becoming proactive causes more problems.4. The problems build gradually, so people don’t realize there is a problem until it’s too late.5. People don’t learn from their experience because the effects of their actions occur somewhere else in the system.

Stock variability amplification in a supply chain due to Bullwhip Effect

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MB0044 – Production & Operations Management (Assignment 1 Answers)

Disclaimer: You may use the content for personal use, for purpose of submitting assignments and for sharing them with your friends. Note that I am not associated with the user of the content directly neither do I endorse them. The content should not be used for commercial purposes. Some parts of answers can be missing, not on purpose but because this is original work and I might have not been able to find the answers. This has been put up only for helping fellow batch mates across the country. Use and share.

Master of Business Administration

Semester II

 MB0044 – Production & Operations Management

 Assignment 1

1. Explain in brief the origins of Just in Time. Explain the different types of wastes that can be eliminated using JIT.

Ans. Just in time were developed to minimize wastage across the organization. If a firm is optimistic about the demand, then that firm increases their planned inventories. On the other hand if the demand is weak when compared to the expectations, then that firm’s unplanned inventories are high. That means companies don’t keep a lot of excess inventory, then manufacture a product as an order comes in. It is management philosophy of continuous and forced problem solving.

The seven types of wastes to be eliminated according to JIT are :

1. Over production

Over production is to manufacture products before it is actually needed. If the demand for that product decreases, the extra parts or products produced may not be useful or needed. Also over production results in high storage costs and is also difficult to detect defects. So, over productions is considered a waste.

2 Inventory.

Excess procurement or production builds up stock of materials which are not immediately use, this locking space and fund carrying heavy cost.

3 Waiting time.

Waste of time happen when goods are not moving or being processed. The operator, the machine or the part will either be not working or be worked upon. The duration is can be said to be unproductive and may create more serious consequences.

4. Movement

Any unnecessary movement is a waste of energy; it causes blockages, disrupting movements and delaying the flow of other items creating delays.

5. Effort:

The people, who work, do not make a study as to how the products on which they are making are utilized and do not realize the purpose for which they are made. This lack of education will lead to waste of resources. Finally, they end up in shortage of resources when needed.

6. Defective products.

The defective products leads to a tremendous loss to the company. This is because they use up the same equipments, workmen and the time that would be used to make good products. Thus defective products use up resources and result in losses.

7. Over Processing

Some steps like unnecessary processing or production do not add value to the final output. As a results, it is waste of all the inputs that go into the process.

Q.2 What is value engineering or value analysis ? Elucidate five companies which have incorporate VE with brief explanation.

Ans. Value of engineering (VE) or value Analysis is a methodology by which we try to find substitutes for a product or an operation.

The concept of value engineering originated during the second world war. It was developed by the General Electric corporations (GEC). Value Engineering has gained popularity due to its potential for gaining high Returns on investment (ROI). This methodology is widely used in business re-engineering, government projects, construction, assembling and machining processes, health care and environmental engineering, and many others. Value engineering process calls for a deep study of a product and the purpose for which it is used, such as the raw materials used; the processes of transformation; the equipment needed, and many others. It is also questions whether what is being used is the most appropriate and economical. This applies to all aspects of the products.

1. GENERAL ELECTICALS CORPORATION (GEC)

The concepts of value engineering originated in 1947 in General Electricals corporation (GEC) When a substitute for asbestos for flooring had to be found. Specialized dealers could provide an equally good material at a lesser price.

Initially, the practitioners were the people in charge of purchasing who tried to locate substitute material which would be equally good, if not better, at a lower price. This the first and basic approach to value engineering. A the concept percolated to the manufacturing departments, engineers applied the same principles and found that, they could use alternate materials, which were cheaper giving the same performance. It was also fund that dimensions and tolerance could be altered without affecting the performance of the part or the product. The investigations took them on the path of eliminating some operations. The focus was on the value of each bit materials, each operation. This approach led to the design stage.

2. ASHOK LEYLAND.

In implementation of VA, Ashok Leyland changed gear material from phosphor bronze to a less expensive cast iron and eliminated frequent field complaint of gear seizure in trucks.

3. TVS.

T.V. Sundaram Lyenger (TVS) Limited is one of the largest automobile distribution companies in India.

During the mid 1940 to 1960s, TVS based in Madurai was ranked as the best bus transportation system in India. It could manage to run the fleets for about 96% of the time.

TVS used the VE approach to restore the mobility of buses that had broken down. They stocked their garage with some critical assemblies of a bus. Whenever, a part or an assembly failed of a bus, they replaced it immediately with a new one, thus restoring mobility within a couple of hours.

When compared to the traditional method, this approach has gained much more benefits to the company, it helped to save time, reduce cost, efficient, quicker, and competitive.

4. MODI XEROX.

Modi Xerox designed the VE-d low-cost copier 1025 ST, which uses a single tray. The advantage of new design is that it is easy to operate and the cost is also very low.

5. TITAN

Titan watches introduced new designs adopting a strategy of innovation.

Q.3 Explain different types of quantitative models. Differentiate between work-study and motion study.

Ans. There are different quantitative models.

1. LINEAR PROGRAMMING: Linear programming technique is often used for optimizing a given objective like; profit or revenue maximization, or cost outgo minimization. Distribution of the revenues is the critical issue, when there are limited resources and they have to meet competing demands.

2. TRANSPORTATION MODEL: Transportation model is concerned with goods from manufacturing centres or warehouses which have to be supplied to depots or retails outlets. The demand and supply position of the places where they are required or produced and the cost of transportation are considered in the model. We use this model to economize.

3. ASSIGNMENT MODEL: Allocating jobs or persons to machines, awarding different projects to contractors is done so that maximum returns occur or less expenses are incurred. Hence, calls for the use of this model.

4. INVENTORY CONTROL MODEL: Inventory control model considers the:

· Frequency of placing orders.

· Quantities per order considering the cost of placing an order.

· Number of pieces that are to be kept in reserve.

· Rate of consumption.

· Lead time required for the supplier.

· Cost involved in storage.

We have different models which give solutions to optimization depending upon the probabilities of consumption and supply.

5. WAITING LINE MODELS: Queues are formed when the rate of services is at a variance with the rate of arrival. They are formed when the rate of production is less at particular points compared to the previous one. Sometimes we see multiple service points and a single queue are formed for feeding them. Number of items which includes the following is studied with some special techniques.

· People to be serviced.

· Rate of service

· Type of queue discipline that is intended to be followed.

· Policy of priority

· Tolerable amounts of waiting

· Others.

  1. SIMULATION MODELS: Simulation models are used when we will not be able to formulate mathematical model. So, we develop a model which resembles a real life situation. Based on this pattern, we predict and plan our procurement, production, delivery and other actions.
  2. PERT (PROJECT EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE) AND CPM (CRITICAL PATH METHOD) MODELS: When projects are undertaken with a number of activities, some happens in sequence, with gaps of weeks or months and some happens simultaneously. It is important to estimate the time required for completion of the project. A lot of coordination is needed while supplying the resources. It is also equally important to identify the bottlenecks and smoothen resources so that time schedules are maintained. Delayed completion may entail penalties. In this model, we adopt special methods to make the system.

Q.4 What is rapid prototyping ? Explain the difference between Automated flow line and Automated assembly line with examples.

Ans. Prototyping is a process by which a new product is developed in small numbers.

Prototyping is helpful to:

· Determine the suitability of the materials

· Study the various methods of manufacture

· Determine type of machinery required

· Develop techniques to overcome problems that may be encountered when full-scale manufacturing is undertaken.

Prototype do meet the specification of the components that enter a product and performance can be measured on those. It helps in confirming the design and any shortcomings can be rectified at low-cost. If serious defects or problems arise during manufacturing, a thorough change in design or even its replacement may be considered. Toa arrive at decisions and to make use of the advantageous stated above, it is important that the prototypes are made within the shortest possible time, Rapid prototyping facilities this.

The advanced Rapid Prototype Modelling Processes are:

Computer Aided Design (CAD)

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)

Lamination Object Manufacturing (LOM)

Electronic Beam Melting (EBM)

Q.5 Explain Break even Analysis and centre of gravity methods. Explain product layout and process layout with examples.

Ans. Break even analysis

Every manufacturing company will have three major contributors to cost;

1. Investments made for land, plant and machinery resulting in interest and depreciation.

2. Recurring expenses, which are not proportional to the quantity of production.

3. Variable costs, which are directly proportional to the quantity produced.

For our calculations, we combine the first two costs together and call them fixed costs. We call those costs that depend on the quantity of production as variable costs.

We compare the total costs for different locations on estimated amounts per annum and select whichever locations costs the least. However we will have to consider the possible variations in production levels during the foreseeable time spans and take decision.

CENTRE OF GRAVITY METHOD.

Centre of gravity method is used mainly when;

· Transportation costs, either for distribution of products or collection of materials from different suppliers is the main criterion.

· Production rates are high.

· The volume and weights of materials that have to be moved are huge.

· Time taken either to receive materials from suppliers or delivery to customers is critical.

It is better to locate the facility at such a place, which caters to the different points most optimally. The vital factor is the load, that is, number of items, or the weights that need to be moved from the central location to the existing or demanding point. We use this method when, both distance and load have to be considered for optimality in terms of costs.

PRODUCT LAYOUT

Product layout is also called as production lines or assembly lines. They are designed and laid out in such a way that only few products are capable of being manufactured or assembled. Materials flow through the various facilities. These use special machines to perform specific operations to produce only one product at one time. So, companies should set different set of machines for different products. Workers perform a narrow range of activities to complete the operations on the product as it moves in a flow line. The operation times, the sequence of movements and routing procedures are highly standardized to meet production requirements which are synchronized with many such products to complete finished goods to meets demands. Using special machines and implementing standardization in operations have many advantages which are listed below:

· The skill required of the workers is low

· Supervision is minimal

· Training needs are small

Precautions to be taken are:

· Constant check on the processes needs to be performed so that quality is assured.

· Corrective measures have to be implemented to avoid rejections, since, the quantities that get manufactured will be continuous.

· Check for the behavioral of the worker. As jobs are repetitive, workers tend to be bored and lose concentration. This may affect productivity and quality.

Example:

Let us consider an examples of a stainless steel manufacturing industry, in which the operations turning, milling and drilling happen in a sequence. Testing is performed in each process to assure the quality. The items are then sent to the assembly block. The items that arrive for assembly are either bought out items or made item components from elsewhere in the plant. The final product inspection is made and send to the packing dispatch.

Q6. Explain Juran’s Quality Trilogy and Crosby’s absolutes of quality. List out the pillars of Total Productive Maintenance.

Ans: JURAN’s Quality Triology

Juran uses his famous universal Breakthrough Sequence to implement quality programmes. The universal break through sequences are ;

Proof of need: there should be a compelling need to make changes.

Project identification: here what is to be changed is identified. Specific projects with time frames and the resource allocation are decided.

Top management commitment: Commitment of the top management is to assign people and fix responsibilities to complete the project.

Diagnostic journey: Each team will determine whether the problems result from systemic causes or are random or are deliberately caused. Root causes are ascertained with utmost certainty.

Remedial Action: This is the stage when changes are introduced. Inspection, testing,and validation are also included at this point.

Holding on to the gains: the above steps results in beneficiary results. Having records or all actions and consequences will help in further improvements. The actions that results in the benefits derived should be the norm for establishing standards.

JURAN has categorised cost of quality in to four categories:

1.Failure Costs–Internal :These are cost of rejections, repairs in terms of materials,labour, machine time and loss of morale.

2. Failure Costs-External:

These are cost of replacement, on-site rework including spare parts and expenses of the personnel, warranty costs and loss of goodwill.

3. Appraisal Costs:

These are cost inspection, including maintenance of records,certification, segregation costs, and others.

4. Prevention costs:

Prevention cost is the sequence of three sets of activities, Quality planning, Quality control, and Quality improvement, forming the triology to achieve

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT.

JURAN’s argument says that;

Quality is the result of good planning consideration the needs of both internal and external customers and develops processes to meet them. The processes are also planned to meet them.

Quality is built into the system of manufacture, inputs and processes that are on stream like raw material, spare parts, labour, machine maintenance, training, warehousing, inspection procedures, packaging, and other. All these have to follow standards and control exercises to make sure that mistake do not occur often and that if mistakes do occur then they are corrected at the source.

Quality improvement measures are essential to keep the quality culture alive. Newer methods will be found, some operations can be eliminated, improved technology available. In short, as experience is gained things can always be done better. IT is for the management to take the initiative and encourage the employees to be on lookout for opportunities for improvement.

CROSBY’S Absolutes of Quality

Like Deming, Crosby also lays emphasis on top management commitment and responsibility for designing the system so that defects are not inevitable. He urged that there be no restriction on spending for achieving quality. In the long run, maintaining quality is more economical than compromising on its achievement. His absolutes can be listed as under:

Quality is conformance to requirements, not ‘goodness’

Prevention, not appraisal, is the path to quality.

Quality is measured as the price Paid for non-conformance and as indices

Quality originates in all factors. There are no quality problems. It is the people designs and processes that create problems. Crosby also has given 14 points similar to those of Deming. His approach emphasizes on measurement of quality, increasing awareness, corrective action, error cause removal and continuously reinforcing the system, so that advantages derived are not lost over time. He opined that the quality management regimen should improve that overall health of the organization and prescribed a vaccine. The ingredients are.

1. Integrity:

Honesty and commitment help in producing everything right first time, every time.

2.Communication:

Flow of information between departments, suppliers, customers helps in identifying opportunities.

3.Systems and operations:

These should bring in a quality environment so that nobody is comfortable with anything less than the best.

Total Production Maintenance (TPM)

Maintenance is a function in any operations system. Maintenance keeps the equipments in good condition. Generally equipments deteriorate because usage wear to the parts introducing inaccuracies on the products made on them. When the deterioration produces a component which exceeds the permitted deviations rendering them unacceptable, maintenance is undertaken to bring back the machine to produce acceptable components. Sometimes the failure is sudden and serious and the equipment stops working. Disruption of production and emergency repairs works are costly and schedules are missed causing delays in supplies and consequent losses. These breakdowns occur because the equipment was carrying hidden defects which were not apparent. All theses are attended to by the maintenances department. Historical records indicate the probability of failures over different periods thus enabling us to plan to attend to them. With progress in automation, we have costly equipments. We have flow lines and any one machine breaking down causes a series of machine to be idle. So, we have to move towards zero breakdowns like we want to move towards zero defects by implementing TQM Tools. TPM puts the responsibility of maintenance where it belongs to and the operator who uses the equipment. It is a company wide activity which involves all the people. The main thrust is eliminating all break downs. The focus is on the operating personnel because they would know about malfunctioning earlier and more than anybody else. They work on the machine and are aware of the slightest variations that occur and thus should be able to plan to remove the cause before it becomes serious. So every planned maintenance activity reduces the probability of a breakdown, Ownership of the operation and machine increases the commitment of the workmen. Autonomy is the starting point for learning and excellence. The worker can suggest better ways of improving quality, productivity,and design. This help in continuous improvement, Team work and participation improves the quality culture. The principles of 5S- the housekeeping activities which improve efficiency at workplace is considered a measurable standard to aid the implementation at TPM even in the office rooms.

MBA Assignments?? Stick it up!

Hello folks!

I know I was supposed to write the Part 2 of Adventures of TinyVibha, but I got too busy and I vaguely remember what happened in the other half of the trip. The next day after my travel was my cousin’s wedding. Nothing much, just usual. I have seen 100 weddings like these. I cannot believe how each wedding ceremony is just the same. No, no Joota Chori happened. Boring people I tell you all. And I finished most of the book ‘The White Tiger’ on the way back. Since then I have been a bit busy…. actually not. I am not busy since I came to know that my MBA exam dates were mixed up with some other batch. But then I am resitting it all and things are under control. I am up here again on my blog because I want to share some of my assignment work with people. To be specific, these are SMU MBA-DE Winter batch assignments. I know how difficult it is to tackle all these assignments and go to office everyday. So I decided, I will put this up here. What? You think I shouldn’t give it for free? But no, that’s not how I am . I cannot take advantage of people’s situation. Yes, if I write a book on management someday I might just sell it to Kotler fans! Wink 😉 Without much ado I am going to start uploading them. I apologise to my followers here if they find these MBA assignment blogs a little irritating. But people out there are in need, at least I think so. Coming up are the SMU MBA-DE assignments for Winter batch 2012. I have completed three now. Rest will follow if I could finish them.

All the best everyone!

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